(“Cervical spine rotation and lateral flexion combined motion in the examination of the thoracic outlet”). Anatomical terms of movement are used to describe the actions of muscles on the skeleton. Muscles. trunk lateral flexion. Vertebral column extension & lateral flexion Spinalis m. - thoracic - cervicis Spines of vertebrae Spines of vertebrae above origin Spinal nn. Lateral flexion involves side bending away from the midline of the body, called abduction, and then straightening back to the center, called adduction. Erector Spinae (Spinalis Group) is a group of muscles that extends vertically up the length of your back, and are involved in both lateral flexion and spinal extension. It is innervated by both the lateral and medial pectoral nerves. It is located in the front of the chest and attaches by tendon to the humerus, or upper arm bone. This offers bilateral comparison cervical lateral flexion. Neck lateral flexion muscles-Anterior scalene, Middle scalene, Splenius cervicis, Splenius capitis, Rectus capitis lateralis, Longus colli, Intertransversarii. These include: Gastrocnemius: This muscle makes up half of your calf muscle… Patient attempts to touch left ear to left shoulder and right ear to right shoulder. Muscles that produce this motion tend to originate on the side of one vertebra or vertebrae and attach to the side of another vertebra or vertebrae elsewhere in the spine, so that by contracting these muscles shorten the spine along one side and pull the trunk laterally. The petoralis major is a large, strong muscle that produces shoulder flexion. Vertebral column extension & lateral flexion Longissimus m. - thoracis - cervicis - capitis Transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae Transverse processes above origin and ribs Spinal nn. The muscle acts to pull the rib cage down (flexion of the vertebral column), either bilaterally (straight flexion) or unilaterally (flexion with rotation). Weakness/tightness in the Erector Spinae may result in overworking the QL muscles to pick up the slack, hence resulting in back pain. Think about using rib mobilizations and stretching/using muscle energy techniques on the muscles that attach to the first rib. Rotation: Note: There is practically no rotation that occurs at the lumbar spine due to the design of the facet joints in the lumbar region, which only allow up to 2 degrees of rotation (this is a protective mechanism, as too much lumbar rotation would put the spinal cord at high risk of injury). The muscle gets its name from its fiber orientation, which is arranged obliquely (superior-to-inferior angle, lateral to medial). ... Lateral rotation is a rotating movement away from the midline. The pectoralis muscle is the main shoulder flexor and is important for muscle definition in the chest. Lateral flexion is performed by being in an upright position (standing or sitting), shoulders should be square and spine is in a neutral position. This is in the opposite direction to the movements described above. Note: tests should only be performed by a properly trained health care practitioner. The vast majority of trunk/torso rotation occurs in the thoracic spine (see thoracic rotation). Along with rotation, forward flexion and extension, it is one of the four movements possible by the spine. Muscles contract to produce movement at joints - where two or more bones meet. Muscles that perform flexion, extension, right lateral flexion, and/or left lateral flexion must have a vertical component to their fiber direction. The movement is brought about by the action on one side of the body of the external and internal oblique muscles, and the quadratus lumborum. ... 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